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APPENDIX B
 
SOME COMMON CONVERSIONS
Some Common Conversions
 
Much of the polar literature makes use of the metric system to express values.  
Below are some rule-of-thumb conversions to more familiar U.S. values:
 
 
Distances  
One meter = 39 inches (3 ft., 3 in. or 3 ft.)  
To convert meters to feet, multiply meters by 3.25  
Ex.: 500 meters = 500 X 3.25 = 1625 feet.  
 
One degree of latitude ( ) = 60 nautical miles. (There are 60 minutes [ ' ] of latitude in one degree; one minute of latitude = one nautical mile).  
One nautical mile (nm.) = 1.15 statute miles (sm.).  
To convert nautical miles to statute miles, multiply nautical miles by 1.15.  
Ex.: 60 nm. = 60 X 1.15 = 69 sm.
 
Note: one knot (kt.) designates one nautical mile per hour in speed. To convert knots to miles per hour, multiply knots by 1.15.
 
One kilometer (km.) = 0.62 statute miles  
To convert kilometers to statute miles, multiply kilometers by .62  
Ex.: 100 km. = 100 X .62 = 62 sm.  
 
Temperatures  
To convert centigrade (Celsius) to Fahrenheit, multiply centigrade by 1.8 and add 32.  
Ex.: 15C = 15 X 1.8 = 27 + 32 = 59F  
       0C =   0 X 1.8 =   0 + 32 = 32F  
       [0C and 32F are the freezing points of water; water boils
        at 100C and 212F].  
 
Note that at very low temperatures such as might be encountered in the polar regions, centigrade and Fahrenheit values are closer together.  
--30C = --22F  
--40C is the same as --40F  
--50C = --58F
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